In this book we take a look at this new challenge of the human brain versus the computer. The brain is a very complex organ and we are just beginning to understand how it works; many things remain mysterious and can lead to surprises. We will see how current investigations bring new information about this strange organ. We will also see how the "artificial challenger" plans to win the battle, how computers are getting more and more powerful and subtle as the AI advances. Would a transfer of minds in a machine be possible? Would the computer be capable of a self, nonneuromorphic intelligence? These questions are now open.